The upper section of the work breakdown structure should identify the major phases and milestones of the project in a summary fashion. In addition, the upper section should provide an overview of the full scope and timeline of the project and will be part of the initial project description effort leading to project approval. The middle section of the WBS is based on the seven systems development life cycle phases as a guide for WBS task development. The WBS elements should consist of milestones and “tasks” as opposed to “activities” and have a definitive period . Each task must have a measurable output (e.x. document, decision, or analysis). A WBS task may rely on one or more activities (e.g. software engineering, systems engineering) and may require close coordination with other tasks, either internal or external to the project.

Designing the new process, 3. Implementing the new process. Analyzing processes to change, 2. Measuring the optimized process. 15) A problem with prototyping is that the systems constructed using this method may not be able to handle large quantities of data in a production environment.

in what stage of systems development are design specifications created?

45) The primary tool for representing a system’s component processes and the flow of data between them is the A) data dictionary. B) process specifications diagram. The conceptual design stage is the stage where an identified need is examined, requirements for potential solutions are defined, potential solutions are evaluated and a system specification is developed.

The system specification represents the technical requirements that will provide overall guidance for system design. Because this document determines all future development, the stage cannot be completed until a conceptual design review has determined that the system specification properly addresses the motivating need. 49) In object-oriented development A) the class is used as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. B) an object is a collection of data that is acted on by external processes. C) processing logic resides within objects.

Systems Analysis And Design

D) a strict, step-by-step development process is essential. 52) Object-oriented development could potentially reduce the time and cost of writing software because A) object-oriented programming requires less training. B) iterative prototyping is not required. D) a single user interface object can be used for the entire application. 31) Categories of tools for BPM include all of the following except A) tools to integrate existing systems to support business processes’ improvements.

B) the use of universal standards. C) the ubiquity of the Internet. D) the ability to reuse Web services components. 66) The process of creating workable information systems in a very short period of time is called A) RAD. B) JAD. C) prototyping. 51) Object-oriented modeling is based on the concepts of A) objects and relationships.

62) Fourth-generation tools cannot replace conventional development tools because they A) cannot handle large numbers of transactions or extensive procedural logic. B) are not designed to integrate with legacy systems. C) do not incorporate methods for documentation. D) do not incorporate methods for testing.

  • B) shows how the new system will fulfill the information requirements.
  • 4) TQM describes the measurement of quality as 3.4 defects per million.
  • C) identifies which users need what information, where, when and how.
  • 46) An entire information system is broken down into its subsystems by using A) high-level data flow diagrams.
  • Iterative methodologies, such as Rational Unified Process and dynamic systems development method, focus on limited project scope and expanding or improving products by multiple iterations.

First the IT system proposal is investigated. During this step, consider all current priorities that would be affected and how they should be handled. Before any system planning is done, a feasibility study should be conducted to determine if creating a new or improved system is a viable solution. This will help to determine the costs, benefits, resource requirements, and specific user needs required for completion. The development process can only continue once management approves of the recommendations from the feasibility study.

Work Breakdown Structured Organization

42) In the direct cutover conversion strategy, the new system A) is tested by an outsourced company. B) replaces the old one at an appointed time. C) and the old are run together.

41) In a parallel conversion strategy, the new system A) is tested by an outsourced company. 12) CASE tools facilitate the creation of clear documentation and the coordination of team development efforts. 3) Failure to address properly the organizational changes surrounding the introduction of a new system can cause the demise of an otherwise good system. Not every project will require that the phases be sequentially executed; however, the phases are interdependent. Depending upon the size and complexity of the project, phases may be combined or may overlap.

in what stage of systems development are design specifications created?

According to Taylor , “the project life cycle encompasses all the activities of the project, while the systems development life cycle focuses on realizing the product requirements”. SDLC can be described along a spectrum of agile to iterative to sequential methodologies. Agile methodologies, such as XP and Scrum, focus on lightweight processes which allow for rapid changes along the development cycle. Iterative methodologies, such as Rational Unified Process and dynamic systems development method, focus on limited project scope and expanding or improving products by multiple iterations. Sequential or big-design-up-front models, such as waterfall, focus on complete and correct planning to guide large projects and risks to successful and predictable results.


D) business process redesign. During this stage of the system lifecycle, subsystems that perform the desired system functions are designed and specified in compliance with the system specification. Interfaces between subsystems are defined, as well as overall test and evaluation requirements. At the completion of this stage, a development specification is produced that is sufficient to perform detailed design and development. Object-oriented analysis is the process of analyzing a task , to develop a conceptual model that can then be used to complete the task. A typical OOA model would describe computer software that could be used to satisfy a set of customer-defined requirements.

54) The oldest method for building information systems is A) component-based development. C) object-oriented development. D) the systems development lifecycle. 47) To understand and define the contents of data flows and data store, system builders use A) a data dictionary.

43) Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or production to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiencies are termed A) compliance. 29) In order, what are the first three steps in BPM? Identifying processes for change, 2. Analyzing existing processes, 3. Analyzing existing processes, 2. Identifying processes for change, 3.

Any part of the project needing support from contractors should have a statement of work written to include the appropriate tasks from the SDLC phases. The development of a SOW does not occur during a specific phase of SDLC but is developed to include the work from the SDLC process that may be conducted by external resources such as contractors. To manage this level of complexity, a number of SDLC models or methodologies have been created, such as waterfall, spiral, Agile software development, rapid prototyping, incremental, and synchronize and stabilize. The systems analysis and design is the process of developing information technology systems that effectively use hardware, software, data, processes, and people to support the company’s businesses objectives. It is a process of planning a new business system or replacing an existing system by defining its components or modules to satisfy specific requirements. System analysis and design can be considered the meta-development activity, which serves to set the stage and bound the problem.

59) A systems building approach in which the system is developed as successive versions, each version reflecting requirements more accurately, is described to be A) end-user oriented. 37) The entire system-building effort is driven by A) organizational change. C) the information value chain. D) user information requirements. 21) The four kinds of structural organizational change enabled by IT, in order from least to most risky, are A) rationalization, automation, reengineering, and redesigning. B) rationalization, automation, reengineering, and paradigm shift.


The advantages of RAD are speed, reduced development cost, and active user involvement in the development process. Few people in the modern computing world would use a strict waterfall model for their SDLC as many modern methodologies have superseded this thinking. Some will argue that the SDLC no longer applies to models like Agile computing, but it is still a term widely in use in technology circles. The SDLC practice has advantages in traditional models of systems development that lends itself more to a structured environment.

Production And Construction

33) Systems design A) describes what a system should do to meet information requirements. B) shows how the new system will fulfill the information requirements. C) identifies which users need what information, where, when and how. D) is concerned with the logical view of the system solution. 16) End-user-developed systems can be completed more rapidly than those developed through the conventional systems lifecycle. 11) Object-oriented development is more incremental than traditional structured development.

Preliminary System Design

25) An upscale organic foods grocery chain is implementing an information system that will enable it to add same-day home delivery of groceries to its customers. 22) In automation A) business processes are simplified. B) business processes are reorganized to cut waste and eliminate repetitive, paper-intensive tasks. C) standard operating procedures are streamlined to remove bottlenecks. D) employees are enabled to perform their tasks more efficiently. System assessments are conducted in order to correct deficiencies and adapt the system for continued improvement.

This high-level description is then further broken down into the components and modules which can be analyzed, designed, and constructed separately and integrated to accomplish the business goal. SDLC and SAD are cornerstones of full life cycle product and system planning. The product life cycle describes the process for building information systems in a very deliberate, structured and methodical way, reiterating each stage of the product’s life. 55) In the traditional systems development lifecycle, end users A) are important and ongoing members of the team from the original analysis phase through maintenance. B) are important only in the testing phases. D) are limited to providing information requirements and reviewing the technical staff’s work.

5) In component-based development, applications are developed one small portion at a time, with each portion able to function independently. To manage and control any SDLC initiative, each project will be required to establish in what stage of systems development are design specifications created? some degree of a work breakdown structure to capture and schedule the work necessary to complete the project. The WBS and all programmatic material should be kept in the “project description” section of the project notebook.

SAD can be leveraged to set the correct balance among competing high-level requirements in the functional and non-functional analysis domains. System analysis and design interact strongly with distributed enterprise architecture, enterprise I.T. Architecture, and business architecture, and relies heavily on concepts such as partitioning, interfaces, personae and roles, and deployment/operational modeling to arrive at a high-level system description.


During the analysis phase of problem-solving, a programmer might consider a written requirements statement, a formal vision document, or interviews with stakeholders or other interested parties. The task to be addressed might be divided into several subtasks , each representing a different business, technological, or other areas of interest. Each subtask would be analyzed separately. Implementation constraints, (e.g., concurrency, distribution, persistence, or how the system is to be built) are not considered during the analysis phase; rather, they are addressed during object-oriented design . In systems design, the design functions and operations are described in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, and other documentation. The output of this stage will describe the new system as a collection of modules or subsystems.

2) Rationalization of procedures describes a radical rethinking of the business models. 1) The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is automation. 70) Compared to the use of proprietary components, Web services promise to be less expensive and less difficult to implement because of A) their ability to integrate seamlessly with legacy systems.

Systems Development Life Cycle

This article is about systems development life cycle. For the IBM’s computer communication protocol, see Synchronous Data Link Control. 40) Acceptance testing A) includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system. B) tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.

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